Wind Power Plant

       Wind flow is created as an effect of solar energy which creates low and high pressure regions on the earth due to heating. This wind is used to run a wind mill which in turn drives a generator to produce electricity.
Fig. 1  Horizontal axis wind mill
Fig. 1 shows a schematic arrangement of a horizontal axis wind-electric generating power plant. The various parts of this power plant are :
1) Wind rotor
2) Gear box
3) Electrical generator
4) Supporting structure
1) Wind rotor : These blades (rotors) are attached on the hub which is connected to shaft. These blades have specific design.
2) Gear box : The shaft of the hub acts as input to the gear box. R.P.M. of the shaft is increased in the ratio up to 1 : 100 in the gear box, to produce electricity.
3) Electrical generator : The shaft is further connected to generator shaft. When shaft rotates, the generation shaft inturn rotates producing electrical energy in generator. Thus mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
4) Supporting structure : The supporting structure is designed to withstand the wind load. Its type and height is related to the cost and transmission system interconnected. Horizontal axis wind turbines are mounted on towers so as to be above the level of turbulence and other ground related effects.

1.1 Advantages 
       Wind energy offers following advantages.
1) It is available at free of cost.
2) It is available in many off-shore, on-shore, remote areas helpful in supplying electrical power to remote areas.
3) It is cost effective and reliable.
4) It supplies energy in rural areas.
5) It does not cause pollution during energy generation.
6) It is economically competitive.
1.2 Disadvantages
      Following are the disadvantages of wind energy.
1) It has low energy density
2) It is favourable in geographical locations away from cities.
3) The supply is variable, unsteady, irregular, intermittent and sometimes dangerous.
4) Wind turbine design, manufacturer and installation have proved to be complex due to widely varying atmospheric conditions in which they have to operate.
5) It has high capital cost per kWh.
6) It requires energy storage batteries which indirectly and substantially contribute to environmental pollution.
7) Wind farms can be located only in vast open areas which are away from load centres.

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