Essential Requirements of an instrument

       In case of measuring instruments, the effect of unknown quantity is converted into a mechanical force which is transmitted to the pointer which moves over a calibrated scale. The moving system of such instrument is mounted on a pivoted spindle. For satisfactory operation of any indicating instrument, following system must be present in an instrument.

1) Deflecting system producing deflecting torque Td  
2) Controlling system producing damping torque Tc  
3) Damping system producing damping torque.

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